When Count Henrique of Portucalae died, his wife Dona Teresa, daughter of the King of Leon, took the title of Queen.
When she married a Galician nobleman the Portucalense noblemen revolted, afraid of being subject to Galicia.
During his reign he fought a civil war against such nobles, needing the papacy to intervene to aid him.
However, he did institute the first laws to affect the whole region, one of which barred people from leaving any more land to the church and got him excommunicated.
As the Romans fought the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, Iberia became a field of conflict between the two sides, both aided by local natives.
After 211 BCE the brilliant general Scipio Africanus campaigned, throwing Carthage out of Iberia by 206 BCE and beginning centuries of Roman occupation.
By the early tenth century, the name had come to identify a broad swathe of terrain, ruled by the Counts of Portugal, vassals of the Kings of Leon.
These counts had a large degree of autonomy and cultural separation.
Afonso also finished the Portuguese part of the Reconquista, seizing the Algarve and largely setting the country’s borders.This was deeply unpopular, because she was married to King Juan I of Castile, and people rebelled fearing a Castilian takeover.Nobles and merchants sponsored an assassination which in turn triggered a revolt in favor of former king Pedro’s illegitimate son Joao.King Denis of Portugal, in a 16th-century miniature.Por Creator: Antonio de Hollanda - Image taken from The Portuguese Genealogy / Genealogia dos Reis de Portugal.Afonso had one eye on supporting his family and another on trying to block the unification of Aragon and Castile, which he feared would swallow Portugal.Afonso was defeated at the Battle of Toro in 1476 and failed to gain Spanish help.He defeated two Castilian invasions with English aid and won the backing of the Portuguese Cortes, which ruled Beatriz was illegitimate.He thus became King Joao I in 1385 signed a perpetual alliance with England which still exists, and began a new form of monarchy.As nobles seized back power from the throne under the ineffective rule of King Sancho II, the Pope deposed Sancho, in favor of the ex- king's brother, Afonso III.He went to Portugal from his home in France and won a two-year civil war for the crown.